Monday, January 27, 2020

Constructions of childhood can affect intervention

Constructions of childhood can affect intervention Improving Childrens Lives In this assignment I will endeavour to compare three major approaches of intervention in childrens lives and the way in which adults constructions of childhood can affect intervention. I will initially describe the three major approaches to intervention and examine the different beliefs that were instrumental in the development of these approaches. I will also discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each of these three approaches in regards to intervention. To conclude, I will discuss my opinion regarding the question; is a rights based approach, especially one which promotes child participation, the best way of improving childrens lives? Why do adults feel the need to intervene in childrens lives? Childhood is a status which is recognised world-wide and by many, if not all, of the worlds religions. These religions have through-out history called for adults to protect children from harm, for example ‘Christianity, Islamic teaching and Buddhism (The Open University, Ch5, Pg.188) There are three major reasons why adults feel it is in the childs best interest for adults to intervene in childrens lives and these reasons have transpired through the different ways adults have constructed childhood. Some adults view childhood as a vulnerable period during which children need protecting, others view childhood as an investment, that by investing in childrens lives adults are in fact investing in future society as a whole, and some view children as citizens who have rights and a claim on resources. Some of the earliest interventions in childrens lives stemmed from the construction of children as vulnerable and in need of adult rescue. The romantic discourse, a belief that children are innocent, vulnerable, powerless and in need of adult protection was instrumental in the implementation of early childrens charities such as Barnardos (founded in 1866) and Save the Children (founded in 1919.) These charities portrayed children as ‘poor victims of circumstance in need of rescue. (The Open University, Ch5, Pg.195) There humanitarian response was concerned with their lack of basic necessities such as food and shelter; they were much less interested in wider political issues of poverty. Although this type of intervention does work in the short-term, for example, hungry children are fed and homeless children are given shelter, unfortunately it does not actually deal with the real issues, the underlying cause of poverty and suffering. The Open University states that by ‘conc eptualising the child as a victim in need of rescue can decontexualize the social, economic, and political circumstances of child-suffering and does nothing to bring about greater social equality or to tackle the root cause of poverty.(The Open University, Ch5, Pg.205)Therefore a new approach to childhood intervention was required. During the 1960s and 70s there was a move away from constructing children as passive victims, to a new approach which constructed children as an investment for the future society or human capital. It was now believed that by providing children with the ‘right resources during the early years would enable children to become productive citizens in the future. (The Open University, Ch5, Pg.206) Head Start, one of the first early childhood development projects was implemented in 1965 in the US as part of President Lyndon Johnsons ‘war on poverty. The Head Start programmes aim was to ‘give poorer children an educational boost in the early years, so that they would be able to compete with middle class children when they arrivedatschool.'(The Open University, Ch5, Pg.209) To this day many early years intervention programmes are fundamentally about providing all children with the chance to enter society with a fair chance to succeed. There is no doubt that investing in the early years benefits many children by providing children with stronger foundations in the areas of health and education, but it does have limitations. Unfortunately this type of intervention does not benefit all children, for example, the programmes only target children below the age of five, funding is controlled by governments and is only allocated to areas considered in need. Therefore assistance is not available for all children. Recently there has been a move towards a rights based approach, constructing children as valuable contributors to society, citizens with rights. A rights based approach is one which recognizes all children regardless of age as right bearing citizens. The first specific childrens rights document was the 1994 Geneva Declaration which was followed by the 1994 Declaration of Human Rights and, the 1959 United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child. These documents constructed children as weak and dependent on adults and they did not have the power to actually protect children, although they were instrumental in bringing to the attention of the world childrens needs and their value to society. In 1989 an international human rights treaty called the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) was introduced. This treaty applies to all children and young people aged 17 and under and was the first to take a childrens rights based approach. The UNCRC is separated into 54 ‘articles which provides children and young people with a set of comprehensive rights. These ‘articles give children social, economic, cultural and political rights; while others set out how governments must implement the UNCRC. The UNCRC states in article 12 that, ‘all children and young people must be listened to, and have their opinions taken seriously in all decision-making that affects them. (Article 12, UNCRC) This leads us to participation. Participation is a way through which children are recognised in an adult society as right-bearing citizans. Gerison Lansdown defined participation as ‘children taking part in and influencing process, decisions, and activities that affect them, in order to achieve greater respect for their rights. (The Open University, Reading, Pg.273) In brief, participation is about adults really listening to children and young adults and taking their views into account when dealing with issues that effect them. The UNCRC does not clearly express that children have a right to participate, although when read together with other ‘articles there is a strong indication towards participation. For example, Article 12 grants every person aged 17 and under the right to express their views, and to have these views given due weight in all matters affecting them. Article 17 gives children and young people the right to receive, seek and give information. Article 13 gives every child the right to freedom of expression, using words, writing, art and any other media so long as they respect the rights of others. Article 23 gives disabled children and young people the right to active participation in their community. And Article 2 requires all the rights in the Convention on the Rights of the Child to be implemented for every child, without discrimination. (UNCRC, http.unicef.org/crc/cc.htm, accessed 3/9/05) For participation to work, children and young adults in many cases have to work together with adults and organisations. Children and young people need access to services that will provide them with information and support enabling them to become knowledgable and confident of their rights. In many countries adults provide support in the form of childrens rights commissioners. Gerison Lansdown stated in Audio 8, Band 5 that it is ‘very important that we establish childrens rights commissioners. Children as a constituency have no vote, very limited access to the courts, very limited access to the media, and therefore theyre not able to exercise the kind of democratic rights that adults are able to exercise.'(The Open University, Audio 8 Band 5, 3:43) Norway was the first country to introduce this system in 1981 and since then other countries have followed in their footsteps. UNICEF states that the childrens rights commisioners role is to ‘seek greater justice for the childre n both by improving access to existing rights and by promoting the recognition of human rights not yet embodied in legislation, culture or day-to-day practice in childrens lives. (The Open University, Ch5, Pg.215). By encouraging participation adults do not surrender all decision-making power to children, instead they encourage children to take more responsibility in decision making. Although in many situations, adults still make the final decision based on the ‘best interests of the child or young adult, but this decision should be informed by the views of the child or young adult. The UNCRC states that children should be ‘given more responsibility according to their ‘evolving capacities (UNCRC, Article 5) meaning that as children develop adults should give them more and more responsibility regarding decisions that affect them. The role of a childrens rights commissioner is a difficult one, as they have to balance childrens rights to participation, with childrens rights of being protected. Peter Clarke, a childrens rights commissioner, discussed this issue of protection v participation and his way of dealing with these situations in Audio 8 band 5 ‘There may be situatio ns where my view of whats in the best interests of children and young people is different from that being expressed by the young people themselves who I consult with about things. (The Open University, Audio 8, Band 5, 17:54) Clarke believes that his role as a childrens rights commissioner is to go ahead and make the childrens and young peoples opinion public even if his opinion is different but then to also make public his own adult perspective on the subject alongside the childrens. As with any political regime the issue of childrens rights to participation are part of a constant ongoing debate. There are many benefits regarding the use of participation; It is believed that the values of democracy, such as respect for the rights and dignity of all people, for their diversity and their right to participate, are best learned in childhood and that by encouraging children and young adults to view their opinions and beliefs allows them to learn constructive ways of influencing the world around them, preparing them for their stake in the future. The use of participation may also help children protect themselves, children who are repressed or discouraged from expressing their views may become more at risk or vulnerable and accept situations which abuse their rights, where as children who are encouraged to discuss and express themselves may become more capable or empowered to challenge any situations which abuse their rights. In this way participation can be seen to be actively protecting children and young adults. Gerison Lansdown states in the Open University that involvement in p articipation helps to promote the well-being and development of children and young adults. She describes this as the virtuous circle effect; ‘The more opportunities for meaningful participation, the more experience and competent the child becomes which in turn enables more effective participation which then promotes improved development (The Open University, Ch 6, Pg.277) Participation also has many drawbacks; it may be difficult for adults to take childrens rights seriously due to the fact that children have been under-represented in social theory and policy for many years, many cultures did not place value on what children had to say. It may also be the case that childrens do not have equal access to participation rights and there may be a bias towards more privileged children having access to these resources, and the children who really need their rights to be heard are unable to gain access to these resources to improve their lives. Adults may also be reluctant to relinquish power to the children and young adults because they still assume they know what is best for children. They may feel that by encouraging participation rights they could produce children and young adults who lack respect towards parents and other adults and figures of authority. Some people may believe that particiption takes away a childs ‘childhood this view may stem fro m the idealistic construction of childhood as a time of innocence or a care-free period (the romantic discourse) where they believe that children should not be bothered with important decision-making and responsiblity. We can see that there are many benefits and also drawbacks regarding a rights based approach and the use of participation. It is my opinion that the benefits far out-weigh the drawbacks. I believe that a reason why participation may be difficult to implement is due to the fact that many adults of this era were not afforded the benefits of participation themselves. I believe that the new generation of adults, the ones who have received the benefits of participation during their own childhoods will, due to first hand experience, have a greater understanding regarding the importance of participation and be far more willing to empower children with the right to participate. In conclusion, we can see that throughout history there has been numerous ideological discourses surrounding children and early childhood. For example, in the Victorian era, where children were perceived as, ‘to be seen and not heard, this discourse and others which I have discussed above, demonstrate how societys constructions of childhood can, has and will continue to influence laws and legislation regarding the ways in which adults intervene into childrens lives. So, do I believe that a rights-based approach, especially one which promotes child participation, is the best way of improving childrens lives? After considering the deficits and benefits of the three main approaches to childhood intervention and after exploring the theoretical ideas and practical application in the promotion of democracy and empowerment in the lives of young children, I have come to the conclusion that I agree that rights based approach is the best way of improving childrens lives. It is my opinion that empowering children with a voice to express their opinions will help contribute to the development of a healthy democratic society. I believe that democracy empowers children to protect themselves against abuses of their rights, and that failure to consult children and young adults on how they feel about something that directly involves them, fails to promote social equality.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Advertising in the Legal Profession Essay

Title: Advertising in the Legal Profession Issue: What is the scope of advertising for the purpose of the prohibition of advertising in the Legal Profession Act of Trinidad and Tobago No. 21 of 1986? Cause of Problem: Schedule No. 3 Part A of the Legal Profession Act No. 21 of 1986 , Sections 6 and 7: An attorney at law may speak in public or write for publications on legal topics so long as he does not thereby advertise his own professional competence and is not likely to be regarded as being concerned thereby with the giving of individual advice. The best advertisement for an attorney at law is the establishment of a well merited reputation for personal integrity, capacity, dedication to work and fidelity to trust and it is unprofessional: a) To solicit business by circulars or advertisements or interviews not warranted by personal relations; b) To seek retainers through agents of any kind; Background to Era in which Code of Ethics was made: The Legal profession Act of Trinidad and Tobago was drafted in an era of no Internet, two radio stations, state-owned television and two daily newspapers. There was also little means by which consumers could obtain and verify information on the quality of services provided by a legal practitioner. Hence in this context the Legislation was relevant and it served to prevent forms of advertising that would misrepresent the capability of the professional in question. This was determined to be a necessity in a profession where standard was to be maintained. Current Position: Now the State and private sector have expanded the print and broadcast media and the internet has driven the communications channels and reach, including the reach of social media. The public itself is less precocious, more knowledgeable of its rights and more demanding of justice, fairness and transparency. There are several avenues that are opened to consumers where attorneys fall short of the standard required in their service to the public. They have applications that can be made to the disciplinary committee1 of the legal profession as well authority that the court has to discipline attorneys. Part B Rule 18 of the Code of Ethics, Third Schedule to the Legal Profession Act No.21 of 1986 Part B Rule 35(1) of the Code of Ethics, Third Schedule to the Legal Profession Act No.21 of 1986 2 In matter of Gail Robinson and Beverly Scoobie solicitors and Beverly Scoobie, Solicitors and In the Matter of the Inherent Jurisdiction of the Court Hca No. 2 of 1985 (unreported), Domain Idea: Advertising and Communications Theoretical Considerations: Advertising is an important constituent in the positioning of a brand in the mind and hearts of consumers. It also serves to build a brand preference amongst a target market. Advertising is multi-functional serving to inform, persuade, remind and enforce the target market as to the services provided by a particular business.3 Advertising for the purposes of marketing would include the use of following Medias4Newspapers, Television, Direct Mail, Radio, Magazines, Outdoor, Yellow Pages, Newsletters, Brochures, Telephone, and Internet. Consequences of lack of clarity of scope of Advertising: Lawyers in Trinidad and Tobago have sought very creative ways to get around this prohibition by interpreting advertising as written into the act narrowly; they consider the act as excluding new and current forms of advertising. Attorneys are therefore doing the following: Â  They are doubling up as newspaper columnists, regular presenters, co-presenters and guests on talk radio and television; Attorneys are also making use of social media, engaging the public but also exposing their views for public consumption. There is also the use of websites by firms. On the websites the firms have the services provided by the various attorneys and their qualifications.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Ielt Task 2

Advertising encourages consumers to buy in quantity rather than promoting quality. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Words: 281/ Time: 45’ Whether or not customers are encouraged by advertisers to purchase products in quantity without promoting quality is a controversial question. Some people would say â€Å"yes† with that idea. However, as far as I am concerned, I strongly oppose that perception. First and foremost, although nowadays consumers are bombarded with information of products and services, viewers are still decisions-makers.Some people concern about quality, others have interest in quantity. But, they generally buy products according to their own interests, tastes, income and other factors. Moreover, customers are now increasingly cautious about advertised products, they thus ask for advice from their friends and families, instead of buying them impulsively. In simple terms, it is customers rather than advertisers who decide to purchase a certain produ ct.It is also noted that the main function of advertising is to provide customers with adequate information about a lot of aspects of a product including quality, package, functions, warrantee, and promotion, not only price. In fact, advertising is usually criticized on the ground that it leads customers to follow the advertisers’ desire. However, according to marketing principles, that advertising merely satisfies consumers’ information needs. Unarguably, price is an important factor that marketers use to boost sales.Nevertheless, it is more important to remember that the role of advertising is to offer specific information on a product and service. Therefore, advertising simply conveys the message relating to price, rather than use it to attract consumers. To sum up, I believe that consumers have different attitudes toward advertisements because they are influenced by various factors, not only price. The general perception of advertising as a stimulus for purchasing in quantity rather than promoting quality is in fact a bias.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Inevitability Of Utter Loneliness - 1553 Words

Emilee West Miss Sibbach AP English III 12 December, 2014 The Inevitability of Utter Loneliness In the novella, Of Mice and Men, author John Steinbeck creates a world of solitude and isolation through the characters of his story. The men and women in Of Mice and Men illustrate that though one may not physically preside alone, the characters will portray the mental and emotional seclusion and the overwhelming feeling of loneliness that still dwells within them. The inevitability of aloneness within the lives of each one of Steinbeck’s characters in Of Mice and Men alludes to the fact that it does not matter the situation one may currently or previously endure, one’s mental status, marital status, or racial status, the feeling of loneliness will preside in the mist of all the other feelings that one may feel. John Steinbeck displayed that seclusion and desolation which presides in the world in which the characters of the novella Of Mice and Men dwell in and their lives and trails display how each one of them either over overcome or become victim of the obliterating feeling of loneliness. George portrayed the perfect character for Steinbeck to display the feeling and effects of loneliness the greatest. George does not have a family; George only has his best friend and companion, Lennie. In the very beginning of the book Steinbeck indicates George’s loneliness by incorporating the scene in which George and Lennie discuss their idea of the American dream. â€Å"Guys like us, thatShow MoreRelatedEdgar Allan Poe s Fall Of The House Of Usher1650 Words   |  7 Pagesof him. 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Effect of Emperors on Religion - 2087 Words

Religion has always been a predominant aspect in human life, whether we are believers or not, and has always influenced our lives whereas it is tied with social, political and economic aspects. Indeed, for example, nowadays Christianity has become the largest, dominant religion in the world with nearly 2.2 billion adherents in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Russia and United States. [8] Moreover, Christianity not only as a religion itself, but along with the church, had had an impact on the course of history, both for its adherents and for the others. Historically, it is commonly known that Christianity started with Jesus in the ancient Roman world, it is commonly known that he was eventually executed and that, after his death, Christians were persecuted under several Roman emperors reigns, and it is commonly known that during one specific reign the Romans started to shift their attitude towards Christians and Christianity became the main religion of Rome and of all its provinces that adopted Romes culture, traditions and, precisely, religion. All of the above laid the foundation of what today we know as Christianity, though, what is Christianity? Historically, who was Jesus? Who were these reigns that brutally oppressed Christian population? And, more importantly, who was that Emperor that changed the destiny of that growing religion in the years of his reign? Palestine, a Roman province, faced the birth of the Jesus movement, today known as Christianity. FollowersShow MoreRelated China and Japan Essay1013 Words   |  5 Pages Throughout the dynasties in China and Japan, religion, economy and politics have been affected by each other in various ways. In the book â€Å"Religion and Making of Modern East Asia†, Thomas Dubois brings to light the impact religion made on both politics and economy in China and Japan throughout the historical period up till date. In his words, he describes â€Å"religion as an extremely political force† (Duboi s, 2011, pp. 7-16). As various religions were introduced, it shaped the politics of leadersRead MoreThe Rule Of The Empire Essay1249 Words   |  5 Pagesto spread their religious mantra to their populace. Asoka, of the Mauryan empire, wanted to use his religion in order to establish his empire as a stronghold of peace and prosperity. In stark contrast to that, Emperor Trajan of Rome wanted for Christians under his dominion to be persecuted in order to keep the status quo of the empire. 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Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Running With Scissors By Augusten Burroughs - 1444 Words

Child development is the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in individuals between birth and the end of adolescence. (Wiki) Child development is inevitably altered when obstacles such as mental instability and abandonment arise, ultimately affecting children going into adulthood. Adolescents are very unlikely to reach their full potential without the guidance of an adult figure, such as a mother, father, sibling, or guardian. Adult figures are essential to a growing child because they exemplify decision making, wisdom, and overall life lessons on how to grow up. Although some children do have an adult figure in their life, they aren’t always the best influences for their children, adults also face their own battles which can reflect upon their exterior, ultimately having a critical effect on a child’s development. For example, in â€Å"Running with Scissors† by Augusten Burroughs, the main character Augusten lives with his mother who suffers from a mental disorder who guides him into a pathway of chaos and disorder. Augusten learns to cope with no guidance, but still faces many issues that could have been resolved with a reassuring adult figure. Situations that affect adults can range from divorce, alcoholism, and depression. Although not as talked about, teenage parenting also plays a big role in the way a child will develop. In most cases, teenage pregnancies are unplanned and as a result young teenage girls either decide to keep, abort, or put the babyShow MoreRelatedThe Ethical Issues of Running with Scissors Essay685 Words   |  3 PagesEthical Issues of â€Å"Running with scissors† This movie is told from Augusten Burroughs point of view of his childhood. He was very close to his mother; he skipped school to stay with her. To him he seemed to have an ordinary life. His house was very clean and he would polish things because he liked it so clean. His mother Deidre Burroughs, who has gone insane after her divorce from his father, gives him up for adoption to her psychiatrist, Dr. Finch. She comes to their house quite often throughoutRead MoreRunning with Scissors Review Essay1705 Words   |  7 PagesKevin Cole October 23, 2011 Period 5 AP Psychology Book Review Running With Scissors: A Memoir Hello, as you probably know each quarter I am required to read a book for the course AP Psychology. For this quarter, I chose the book Running With Scissors by Augusten Burroughs. The publisher of the book is St. Martin’s Press in the United States and it was published in the year of 2002. The author of the book is also the subject of the book due to it being a memoir. He is qualified to write thisRead MoreBelonging Essay4112 Words   |  17 Pages75 GRO JNF 636.7 GRO http://www.marleyandme.com/ Sixx, Nikki The heroin diaries ANF 784.54 SIX Lucy, Judith The Lucy Family alphabet ANF 792.0280994 LUC http://www.readings.com.au/product/9780670071326/the-lucy-family-alphabet Burroughs, Augusten Running with scissors ANF 813.6 BUR Skrzynecki, Peter Sparrow garden ANF 819.14 SKY Who do you think you are? Second generation immigrant women in Australia ed. Herne, J. ANF 819.8 WHO Frame, Janet An angel at my table ANF 819.93 FRA Facey, Albert A fortunate

Monday, December 9, 2019

Means More to Me free essay sample

Is there one place on earth that means more to me than all others? Theres nothing better than Waking up In the morning with the cool breeze blowing upon my face, the warm sunshine and the breathtaking view of the sea that seems to go beyond infinity. Breakfast Is served, the day starts with the usual sounds of teaspoon hitting the porcelain cups as everybody stirs their hot coffee (or milk) and the cheerful discussion of the children sharing their dreams last night and what they plan to do for the day. After breakfast, we go outside and play with the sand, bulging sand structures and smashing them not worried about life. It was fun. This Is home 20 years ago. Since I started college, most of the time I was not at home. I have been sent to a university at another city 3 hours away from our hometown. Slowly I have been molded to become an independent person, meeting strangers and acquaintances with different values and principles in life. We will write a custom essay sample on Means More to Me or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page People with different attitudes and personalities tend to influence me to either paths. But yet, the values my parents instilled in me still holds on. It will be my guiding light in the dark and my compass when I seem lost.Home is the first school I attended to, with my parents as my first searchers, and my siblings as my first classmates. The values they teach us will be our foundation where we will build our success from. Fast forward today. Here I am, in an office at a big metropolis, far from home, living this now-complicated life. No more sand structures, cool breeze and warm sunshine along the beach. My memories flashback to the times we were still kids. Waking up in the morning is so relaxing and comforting as were looking forward for a fun and exciting day ahead. I treasure everything at home the place that means more to me than any place on earth.